Friday, 17 July 2015

Pluto Flyby

Pluto Flyby - Part 1 of 6 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Well, I nearly missed it, all the excitement about the images of planet Pluto. Only my Google logo alerted me to the fact that* there was an astronomy event happening now, and all my shorthand devotees were taking down the news of it without the chance to practise some of the vocabulary. Taking down difficult or technical matter without having first sorted out some of the outlines can be either exhilarating if you manage it, or very disheartening if you are thrown by the unknown words, resulting in gaping holes in your script. Just reading new outlines gets them planted in the mind, but further focussed* practising will ensure that this new information takes root and is made more permanent*, ready to be recalled in an instant, or at least reduce the delay.

* Omission phrase "to the (f)act that"

* Insert vowel, as "fixed" has a similar meaning

* See Distinguishing Outlines List 3 "prominent permanent pre-eminent"

Pluto Flyby - Part 2 of 6 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The NASA spacecraft New Horizons left the Earth in January 2006* for its 9 year journey covering the 4.8 billion kilometres (3.26 billion miles) to Pluto, the last unexplored body in our solar system. This is a momentous key event in the history of space exploration and the probe’s rendezvous with Pluto will complete our reconnaissance of the 9 planets of the solar system. It takes sunlight 8.3 minutes to reach Earth but 5 hours to reach Pluto. Another way of understanding this immense distance is to say that* attempting to view Pluto from Earth is like trying to see a walnut from 30 miles away. The long delay (4 hours 25 minutes) in sending and receiving radio signal instructions means that the craft cannot be controlled in real time and is therefore working to an automated command sequence.

* The slash has no phonetic value, but it can be used for "thousand" or the century part of a date - it doesn't join but it is fast and less likely to be misread than an Ith.

* Omission phrase "to s(ay) that"

Pluto Flyby - Part 3 of 6 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The first images received show the planet to be not an icy grey globe as expected* but a reddish orange body about two-thirds the size of Earth’s moon. It is 2,370 kilometres in diameter which is a little larger than previously estimated. The red tinge is thought to be of oxidised rocks like those on Mars. The probe has discovered the chemical signatures of methane and nitrogen ice in its polar ice cap and later images were able to capture details as little as 100 metres across, showing up surface features such as cliffs, craters and chasms. The main hazard that the craft faces is orbiting dust particles and one the size of a grain of rice would be enough to destroy it, although this risk is low at one in ten* thousand. All the information collected will take 16 months to relay back to earth.

* Short dash through last stroke of contraction to signify past tense

* Always insert the vowel(s) if you use an outline for ten or eighteen

Pluto Flyby - Part 4 of 6 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

On Monday 13 July 2015 the last downlink of pre-flyby data was sent and then there was radio silence, whilst the probe turned its attention entirely to gathering images and data during the fly-by. On Tuesday the New Horizons probe flew past the planet at over 45,000 kilometres per hour. On Wednesday it sent back engineering data on the status of the probe. This data showed that the craft has survived the encounter with the planet. The probe is nuclear powered and fuelled by plutonium (itself named after the planet) and has enough fuel to continue until the mid 2030’s, at which point it will have left the solar system. The gadgets on board are as follows.

Pluto Flyby - Part 5 of 6 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot
  • Ralph is a visible and infrared imager, taking colour pictures and helping us identify the hot and cold areas.
  • Alice is an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer to observe the planetary atmosphere and objects around it.
  • REX is a radio science experiment which measures the atmosphere and temperature
  • LORRI is a long range reconnaissance imager, which is a super high-quality camera and will help us to map the planet’s geography. The on-board cameras will also obtain images of Pluto’s five moons called Charon, Hydra, Nix, Styx and Kerberos.
  • SWAP stands for solar wind at Pluto and is a solar wind and plasma spectrometer.
  • PEPSSI stands for Pluto energetic particle spectrometer science investigation, which measures the density of ions escaping from Pluto’s atmosphere.
  • SDC is a student dust counter that measures the amount of space dust hitting the probe during its journey from Earth to Pluto. It was built and is controlled by students.

Pluto Flyby - Part 6 of 6 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Pluto was discovered in 1930 by the American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona and named by an English schoolgirl in a competition. Seven* months into the craft’s journey Pluto was downgraded to dwarf planet, in response to revised definitions of various space bodies. Now that the scientists have discovered it is slightly larger than first thought, they are considering upgrading it to its former status. This is just as well, as it may be that our scientists are about to find out what Pluto itself thinks about this humiliating demotion and removal of full planet status all those years ago. It may decide to fling a single particle of high velocity rice-sized dust at the New Horizons probe in displeasure and retribution, although I think that by that time the craft will be safely out in the far reaches of the solar system and on its way towards interstellar space, all the while quietly downlinking all of its store of data to its masters at the US Space Agency, thus feeding the insatiable appetite of our scientists and astronomers for information on this last and furthest outpost of our solar system. (881 words)

* Keep the hook very clear, so that it does not look like "several" which would also make sense

Pitman logo on spine of shorthand dictionary
Amazing atmospheric image of Pluto rising over one of its moon's horizons -
it's been on my shorthand dictionary for the past 40 years

Monday, 13 July 2015

Almost The Seaside

Almost The Seaside - Part 1 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Starling getting worm from river mudIt has been quite a while since we took a trip to the seaside, although we have been out on lots* of short trips to nearby parks and attractions, and other places of interest in and around London. Our recent trip to the riverside at Erith did feel a little like the seaside as the Thames estuary is quite wide there and the day was clear, warm and sunny* with a big blue sky. With the peak of my hat over my eyes, I could block* out the view of the far bank and just listen to the seagulls and the sloshing of the water against the underside of the pier. As the water is somewhat salty, from seawater flowing back on the incoming tide, maybe it counts as seaside. Salt water can be found as far upriver as central London which is definitely not a seaside town. I am not volunteering to find out the salt level by tasting* it and I am leaving that to the starlings that I saw poking* about for easy worm meals near the surface on the deep Erith mud.

* All these words benefit from the insertion of the first vowel: lots/masses, sunny/snowy, block out/black out, tasting/testing, poking/pecking

Almost The Seaside - Part 2 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Stones on tarpaulinLast weekend* all thoughts of the seaside were absent and I was working in the garden. The weather was too hot to go out and about anywhere and I wanted to stay close to the mango juice supply lurking in the bottom of the fridge! I decided to clear up the corners of the garden where things accumulate. I had some bags of pebbles that needed washing of mud before they could be used elsewhere*. I spread them out on a large tarpaulin on the lawn and attacked them with the jet spray on the hose. To get them into a heap, I lifted the corner of the tarpaulin. As I lifted it, the stones all moved together, making that familiar rushing and scraping noise, when the waves drag down the stones as the water draws back into the sea. The pebbles were glistening wet and I had three more corners to go. But the big question was, was the tide coming in or going out? I don’t think I will ever find out.

* Omission phrase "last (w)eekend"

* "elsewhere" downward L to make a good join with the next stroke

Almost The Seaside - Part 3 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Sea kale on stony beach
Sea kale, Eastbourne beach
Later on I was weeding the gravel under and around a garden seat. Once again*, it seemed just like a beach where I am always surprised to see anything growing at all, especially large plants like the blue-green sea kale that spreads its tough thick leaves over the barren pebbles and broken rocks with no visible means of support or nutrition. I scraped back some of the gravel and it was damp and muddy further down - obviously, I must watch out for invading sea kale plantlets and deal with them immediately, so that my delicate welsh poppies and little alyssum and violet* clumps are not compromised. Further down where it was muddier, some worms had made their home, but as I was not going sea fishing for mackerel, skate or cod that day, I thought I would leave them in peace.

* Omission phrase "wu(n)s again"

* Keep the L short, as "viola" is similar

Almost The Seaside - Part 4 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

GoldfishThen I spent some time weeding and tidying around the pond. The pump had been off for a little while, pending the installation of an overflow pipe, so the water smelt of algae more than usual, not unpleasant but distinctly reminiscent of a seaside rock pool. Disturbing marginal plants generally turns up little shrimps that the goldfish are always after, but I half expected to find sleeping limpets and little crabs trapped at low tide. Fortunately I did not have to tread over any slippery green rocks or end up with sand between my toes. The only sight was green water and orange and pink goldfish milling about looking for the dislodged shrimps or other wrigglies for them to eat.

Almost The Seaside - Part 5 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Waste bin top in shape of shark's head and mouth
Fish shop, Whitstable
Suddenly the peace was shattered when a huge shark-like shadow emerged from the murky depths, its jaws open wide, its pale dorsal fin waving about in the air, and all the little tails of the smaller fish splashing to escape. I got my hand away from the edge very sharply, and closed my eyes against the splashes. Then all was quiet. I looked again and found my biggest friendly old fish looking me square in the face, calm and patient, expecting his usual treat of a piece of bread being thrown into his open mouth, so that he can capture it without having to make further manoeuvres - he is getting on in years and doesn’t* move as quickly as he used to. We have this game where he gets the first big lump of bread, swims off to chew on it, and then the little fishes get theirs.

* Apostrophied versions always have the vowels, although inserting only the first one would be sufficient here. Without it this would be "does not"

Almost The Seaside - Part 6 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Finally I had to wash my feet and rubber sandals with the hose - more seaside memories as I walked off with the water squelching out from all sides. A seagull flew over the garden just for my benefit, choosing to utter his screeching call just as he was directly overhead. Unfortunately seagulls would have no difficulty in clearing my pond of its occupants if they were brave enough to come down and so I have the whole thing netted against predatory birds, such as herons and ducks. I have left lots of easy escape routes for small birds that have blundered in, which does not happen very often.

Almost The Seaside - Part 7 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

If I wanted to experience being cooked by the sun on the beach, I could always sit and bake in the greenhouse, but that is not one of my favourite* activities, so I discarded that idea. All of a sudden* the suburbs seemed like a hot dry place to spend this summer weather and, after cleaning up from all the muddy work, it will be time to consult the maps to see which is the nearest place to visit and hopefully experience all these things at the same time* in one place - minus the shark of course. The only shark encounter that I am happy about is eating its smaller relation, the dogfish or huss, along with some crispy and fluffy chips, at the end of a day by the sea before the drive home. (1016 words)

* Compare "favoured" which has normal V stroke

* Omission phrase "all (of a) sudden"

* Special phrase "at the samt-ime", see many similar phrases on

Waves on stony beach
Can you hear the stones?

Sunday, 12 July 2015

Alexandra Palace

Alexandra Palace - Part 1 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Alexandra Palace south west end
Earlier this year we went to see Alexandra* Palace in North London. My only knowledge of it was that it was a former television transmitting station and, with that being the only fact in my mind, I had never stopped to wonder why it was called a palace. Alexandra Palace was opened in 1873, originally called “The Palace of the People”, as a north London version of the Crystal Palace in south London. It was to be a place of entertainment, recreation and education for the general public - that distinctive and special Victorian mix of enjoyment and betterment for the masses. It was later nicknamed Ally Pally and I think it is safe to assume that this friendly version was a token of its acceptance and favour with the public for whom it was built.

* "Alexander" uses doubling

Alexandra Palace - Part 2 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Vaulted glass roof from insideWe travelled to Highgate, which is a hill of 136 metres, with expansive* distant views over the whole of London, glimpsed at first only from the top deck of our bus ride to Muswell Hill. A short walk away from the shops brought us to Alexandra Park and we were glad to get away from the traffic and into the quiet and shady greenery. We soon came upon the building itself, a huge brick-built edifice on the top of the escarpment. Although it is now semi-derelict, its fa├žades on three sides are still quite impressive and imposing, and is still in partial use. I think this is what one might call faded grandeur and this building is obviously waiting to be brought back to life, as it was originally intended - “available for the free use and recreation of the public forever”. In the meantime, it does still host events and there are plans to refurbish various areas within it as funds permit*.

* Keep the P low angled and insert the vowel, to prevent misreading as "extensive" which has a similar meaning

* It is helpful to insert a vowel in "permit" and "promote" as they have similar meanings. Write the first vowel in "promote", rather than the second, ensures it is clearly that word, as even dots and dashes can become unclear when writing at speed.

Alexandra Palace - Part 3 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

However, on our visit I found the view from the hill somewhat more interesting. After all, one can take only so many photos of bricks, carvings and colonnades. Leaning on the railings with our back to the building, we took in the 180 degree view over London, firstly down the green slopes, over the trees and on to the endless suburbs dotted with trees, and into the distance. The escarpment faces south east, so straight ahead of us we knew must be Greenwich and we could just make out the faint distinctive shape of the Millennium Dome. To our left was Stratford where we recognised some of the structures of the Olympic Park. To our right was a very faint and purple-tinged row of tall buildings, the most recognisable being the needle-shaped Shard building next to London Bridge Railway Station. It was very gratifying to know that all the noise, cars, trains, fumes and crowds were a long way off, leaving us to enjoy the fresh air, pleasant breezes and sunshine from our privileged vantage point from our palace on the hill.

View over London

Alexandra Palace - Part 4 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Transmitter mastAt the north east end is the BBC* transmitter mast, first used in 1935 and still in use today. The blue plaque on the wall states “The world’s first regular high definition television service was inaugurated here by the BBC 2 November 1936”. I was interested to see the substantial lightning conductor, a wide band of green copper running down the brickwork below the mast, and saw there was a break in it at eye level, with an extra piece of copper bolted over the crack - obviously the electricity from any storms would be delighted to be so well* looked after and enabled to continue its urgent journey earthwards! We wandered around to the far end, which was the original frontage when it was first opened.

Repaired lightning conductor* Acronyms are generally best written with longhand letters, but this one is clear and well-known.

* Omission phrase "so (w)ell"

Repaired lightning conductor - any volunteers to stand here and check the current gets across OK?

Alexandra Palace - Part 5 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Paddle boats on pondBehind the building is a large boating pond with an island in the middle. I rather liked the paddle* boats on offer, in the shape of giant white swans, green and red dragons and, most unsettlingly, floating cars. A few of these were being sedately paddled* around the pond, and being totally ignored by the ducks and pigeons, whose only interest was those people who had settled down on the benches to consume their snacks and who might just be untidy and careless enough to drop a few pieces within safe pecking distance. It is not a good idea to drop a single crumb unless you have finished eating! Further along is a children’s playground, much more* interesting to the youngsters than any amount of historical grandeur and ornamentation.

* Helpful to insert vowel in "paddle paddled" as they could be misread as "pedal pedalled"

Omission phrase "much mo(re)"

Alexandra Palace - Part 6 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Disused old stationWe walked round to the back of the Palace and located the former railway station, which is now a community centre. There is no railway now, but we decided to follow its former route and see how much of it was still visible. We left the park, crossed the A504 main road and followed the route of the track through what is now a long narrow strip of woodland called Parkland Walk North with a bare earth path where the tracks used to run. We found various posts, wire, metalwork and concrete structures, decaying relics of its former use. Towards the end we passed a house alongside, whose retaining garden wall was made up entirely of railway sleepers. I could imagine that the householders at that time were delighted when the timber became available for them to acquire, in order to construct such a durable and handsome boundary between their house and the new woodland walk. The route stops abruptly* at Muswell Hill and the rest of the old route is built over.

* Written thus to gain good joins between the strokes, if it used a hooked Br it would not be an easy or clear outline.

Viaduct part and views of Parkland Walk North
Viaduct in Parkland Walk North

Alexandra Palace - Part 7 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

Highgate WoodAnother short walk brought us to Highgate Wood which is full of large ancient trees, but as this was at the beginning of April they were all bare and we had to just imagine what it might be like in full leaf. I am always glad to find a woodland of old and mature trees, as that means that all the wildlife is also well established, and so we looked forward to a return visit later in the year.

Drinking fountain in Highgate Wood
In the centre we found a pink marble drinking fountain that miraculously still produced a trickle of water when we pressed the button. We finally ended up at Highgate Station, also derelict, but here we took the long and steep escalator down to Highgate tube station and made our way to London Bridge, from where we took the train to our part of north Kent which had been just a misty purple speck in the panoramic view we had enjoyed from Alexandra Palace. (1071 words) Friends of Parkland Walk

Saturday, 27 June 2015

Contractions 6

Contractions 6 - Part 1 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

This is the last article in this series practising the main contractions, although there will be another set for the optional contractions later on. My friends were very sympathetic when I told them the news. I am sure that sympathetic words followed by helpful actions is the best course to take. The teachers were very unsympathetic when the lazy student failed his exam. Although they were unsympathetic, they did offer some pointers to improve* on future performance. The lady received a telegram informing her of what had happened. A telegram was the quickest form of written communication, long before the arrival of emails and texting. The telegraphic system has been completely replaced by modern technology. A telegraphic style of speaking or writing means short, concise or clipped, and may suit a newspaper article.

* Both "improve" and "improvement" make sense here, so a full outline might be advisable in such situations, or a note made in margin e.g. V for verb or N for noun

Contractions 6 - Part 2 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The scientists are studying the distribution of matter in the universe. The universe is another word for the entire cosmos. He is studying mathematics at university. The students visited several universities in the country in order to* choose where they would like to study. It is a universal law that more study and work result in greater success and achievements. The researchers are looking for a universal cure for this problem. They dream of a universal language but mathematics is the only universal language that we have. The universality of these emotions makes the story attractive to everyone.

* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"

Contractions 6 - Part 3 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The following contractions are based on short forms. Anything you do in the way of practise will improve your speed. There is nothing better than finding you can write faster and still read it back. All previous doubts about your abilities will fade into nothingness! Everything becomes possible and hopefully there is something in the way of improved* employment or enjoyment at the end of it. It is quite remarkable how the mind can absorb all this information without any trouble at all. Shorthand may appear to be a quite unremarkable subject, but it is remarkable how this opinion can change if it leads to a better paid job opportunity. I am sure we are all thankful for those who wrote the instruction books, and I am certainly not unthankful to all my shorthand teachers in sharing their knowledge and enthusiasm.

* Past tense of a contraction can be indicated by striking a short line through

Contractions 6 - Part 4 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

I have assembled all my papers together in a file. You will need the vowel for the following: I have assembled all my papers to go in a file. Together we can make a difference to the situation in this town. Taking all these incidents together, it is clear that a change needs to be made. Altogether is an adverb which means wholly, entirely or completely. We are altogether confused by these events. I am altogether at a loss as to understand what this means. “All together” is a phrase that means roughly the same as the single word  together” - we were all together in the room, or you could say, we were together in the room. The friendship club was built on the principles of togetherness and mutual support. Whenever I see a notepad, I want to cover it in shorthand outlines. Whenever I hear people speaking, I see the shorthand outlines. Whatever I am doing, I will be thinking of the exam that is coming up soon. Both parties must attend the court, whensoever they are summoned by the official.

Contractions 6 - Part 5 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The following are intersected contractions. Last year the management decided to enlarge the office space. It has now been enlarged by about fifty square metres. I thought of enlarging my house but it would be too expensive at present. We have the original photos and also all the enlargements that were made. They were made with an enlarger, which projects a larger image onto photosensitive paper. These incandescent light bulbs get very hot when they remain on for any length of time. We could see the incandescent glow from the furnace at the other end of the factory. Incandescence is light coming from a body caused by its high temperature. This equipment measures the level of incandescence of this substance.

Contractions 6 - Part 6 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

It is very inconvenient to find a gap in one’s shorthand notes. This is an inconvenience that we can well do without. It might* be inconvenient to spare the time to practise but that is nothing compared to the inconvenience of failing the speed exam. My studies were interrupted most inconveniently. Nevertheless I will give it all the time I can spare. I will be doing all the exercises notwithstanding the fact that* I have lots of other work to do as well. This person is not withstanding* the pressures very well at all. We are sending a letter to all the ratepayers to tell them of the increases. The contraction is only used for the plural not for the singular ratepayer*. An unprincipled*person is tricky, dishonest and lacking the morals expected in our society. This person is most unprincipled and will do anything for personal gain.

* "might" is not phrased, so that it remains in its own position and does not look like "may", similarly could/can, no/not

*  Omission phrase "notwithstanding the (f)act that"

* "not withstanding" Separate words, therefore contraction is not used

* "ratepayer" No reason is given in the books why this is so, but perhaps in the singular it would look too much like a cross, which would be a full stop

* "principled" is a full outline

Contractions 6 - Part 7 of 7 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

As there was only circumstantial evidence, the judge had to dismiss the case. Direct evidence is the opposite of circumstantial evidence. A circumstantial report is one that gives details and particulars rather than generalisations. The outline for interest is formed like this merely to make derivatives more easily, which could not happen with a loop. I have an interest in shorthand and if you are also interested you may borrow my book. It is an interesting fact that* shorthand is never derided by those who have mastered it! Interestingly we now find ourselves firmly in this category. If you are disinterested, this means that you have no interest whatever and are indifferent to the subject. Disinterestednessand lack of motivation are the reasons why this course has been abandoned. The noun disinterestalso means lack of bias or involvement. This dispute is best resolved by a disinterested party who has no involvement with the company. Once you have mastered all the contractions, you may be very interested in finding out how much it helps reduce hesitations and so increase speed. (1003 words)

* Omission phrase "fac(t) that"

* See note on "disinterest" and "disinterestedness" at

Friday, 26 June 2015

Contractions 5

Contractions 5 - Part 1 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

I hope your knowledge of shorthand is increasing and  you are becoming knowledgeable about how to write everything and how to practise successfully. You can now speak knowledgeably to others, and your knowledgeability on the subject* is becoming widely known. Those who doubted your capability will finally have to acknowledge your success, and those who have already acknowledged this fact may possibly be thinking of taking up the subject as well. Acknowledging your triumphs is all very well*, but the best acknowledgement is a practical one, either in a new job opportunity or higher remuneration, or both.

* Omission phrases "on (the) subject"  "very (w)ell"

Contractions 5 - Part 2 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

She obtained a job as an administrator in the personnel department. An administratorship position is generally better paid than others. A female administrator is called an administratrix although this term is not in general use. The two companies decided to amalgamate in order to* take advantage of the economies of scale. They will be amalgamating next year and we think the amalgamation process will be a lengthy one. The amalgamation of the two clubs will mean that they can share the same facilities and thus reduce costs to their members. It was not an arbitrary decision, and we have not arbitrarily chosen our course of action. This firm specialises in arbitration in disputes between management and staff. They will arbitrate in the situation between these groups of people and hopefully resolve the difficulties. He works as an arbitrator in a large firm in the city. He has arbitrated in many disagreements between various parties.

* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"

Contractions 5 - Part 3 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

This law firm specialises in bankruptcy cases. This company has become bankrupt, in other words it has been legally declared insolvent which means it cannot pay its creditors. Bankruptcy is sometimes used to evade* creditors and unscrupulous persons may continue trading under another name. A machine with a defect or fault is described as defective. This computer is defective and needs to be replaced. We are planning to go to England and learn the English language. We will practise our skills on our friend who is an Englishman. A native of England may be called an Englander, but this term is not common. Their neighbour was an Englishman who offered to help them with their English language skills. This Englishwomanhas travelled all over Europe. My friend thinks that these Englishwomenare not very fashionably dressed. We said it would be very un-English to speak to a stranger in this way.

* "evade" insert vowel, to differentiate from "avoid"

* "-woman -women" Note the semi-circle W faces different ways in each of these, to show the different vowels "wooman" and "wimmin". See also

As nouns, the emphasis is on the first syllable Eng-. If these were adjective+noun i.e. English man, English women, then the emphasis would be on the first syllable of the noun, and each word written separately in both longhand and shorthand to reflect this.

Contractions 5 - Part 4 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

This lady* is the executive officer in charge of investigations. She could be called an executrix but again this term is not commonly used. He is the Chief Executive of the company. I have named my brother as the executor of my Will*. You can also appoint a solicitor to be the executor of your Will and affairs. They can take on the executorship of any matter that you need help with. They can make investigations to find out all the facts* and undertake the identification of those who should be contacted. This book helps with the identification of plants and animals in the countryside. All the suitcases had an identification tag on the handle. It was very inconsiderate of him to behave in this way. Their inconsiderate actions have resulted in a disagreement between them*. This employee was behaving very inconsiderately to the customers. His regular inconsiderate behaviour and speech resulted in termination of his employment.

* Insert first vowel, as it could look like "lad" or "laddie", or "elder" if written hastily.

* The noun Will is a full outline. For clarity the longhand often uses the initial capital for the legal document, but lower case for the noun "will" meaning "intent/desire/volition". Only the verb "will" uses the plain L stroke in a phrase. 

* Omission phrases "all the (f)acts"  "betwee(n) them"

Contractions 5 - Part 5 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The lawyer undertook an investigation into the falsification of the documents. The employee was found guilty of falsification of the financial records. He planned to falsify the records, although he knew that giving false information was illegal. The managing director has a very influential position on the board. This new information has been very influential in helping him make a decision. He is an intelligent person with a sharp mind. We need an intelligent answer to this problem as soon as possible. His speech is clearly intelligible, but his writing is completely unintelligible. In this situation we need someone to use their intelligence and come up with an answer. The child is not unintelligent but merely needs encouragement with her school work. At the interview he answered all the questionsintelligently. The intelligentsia is the name for intellectuals considered as a social or elite group.

* Optional contraction

Contractions 5 - Part 6 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The legislature is the branch of government with the power to make or change laws. In other words they are a legislative body. We have received* the new legislative guidelines. In my new job I have to learn all the legislative procedures for our company’s operations. It will take me a minimum of a year to learn everything about the job. The staff were negotiating for an increase in the minimum wage for their department. This student does the minimum of study, and his negligence is likely to cause him to fail his exams. After the unfortunate accident, the firm was prosecuted for negligence. Negligence is when someone neglects to do what they should.

* Omission phrase "we have (re)ceived"

Contractions 5 - Part 7 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

The parliamentary debate on this matter has been going on all week. Mr Smith is the parliamentary candidate who is standing for election. He was well acquainted with all the parliamentary procedures that were necessary. He had to answer many questions* from the parliamentary committee. Something that is not consistent with parliamentary procedure or practice is called unparliamentary. It is questionable whether he intends to finish the job properly. My teacher said it was questionable that I would pass all the exams this year. The other students will unquestionably do very well* in the end of term exams. He reminded us of the questionableness of taking this dangerous course of action. Unfortunately she is a person of very questionable morals.

* Optional contraction

* Omission phrase "very (w)ell"

Contractions 5 - Part 8 of 8 - Long Live Pitman's Shorthand! Blogspot

I doubt whether the stain on this shirt is removable. Ink stains are not generally removable from clothing. Is this difficulty removable or do we have to work around it? The heavy stone is unremovable without some special machinery. His confidence is irremovable and I am sure he will succeed. The builder’s work was perfectly satisfactory*and we shall be using him again. The students gained satisfactory results* in their exams. I am glad to report that they have completed the job satisfactorily. This work is most unsatisfactory and needs to be corrected. The outcome was unsatisfactory and we will be sending in a report to that effect. We received dissatisfactory service at the hotel and will not be returning there. (1058 words)

* Omission phrases "perfect(ly) satisfactory"  "satisfactory (re)sults"*